LT 716 Article Review
Instructional Systems Design: What itŐs all about By: Curtis
The author defined Instructional Systems Design (ISD) as a
research based methodological approach that brings the learner from a state of
not being able to perform a certain task or skill, to that state of being able
to perform it. A vital issue in ISD is to take the learner and give them skills
or abilities that they previously did not have.
The author writes his article based on a textbook publish by
Walter Dick and Lou Carey in the 70Ős and states that ISD is a synthesis of
research in learning, formulated into a methodology for creating
instruction. The methodology of
instructional design is to start from the desired goal or outcome and work backward
and fill in the steps as they are needed.
The viewpoint that may assist a designer is to think of the
instructional content as the end product and not as the starting point. It should be stated clearly to new
designers that ISD requires a high level of rigor and is time intensive.
It is through this model of development that the author
outlined 10 steps that are used in the instructional design process:
the instructional goal(s). This is an overall statement of what we expect
the learners to know at the conclusion of the instruction.
Statement analysis: Here we classify the instructional goal as verbal
skills (recalling factual information), intellectual skills (calculating
equations, etc), a psychomotor skill (operating a train), or an
attitudinal goal (making ideal or proper choices). This is necessary in order to
define strategies for design.
skills analysis: In this step the designer dissects and breaks down the
primary steps into sub skills.
Ideally we complete this as a backwards process with the goal of
getting to a very basic set of skills.
behaviors and characteristics: It is important to identify the learnerŐs
entry behavior. The designer will need to ensure that the learners are
ready for instruction by identifying the learnerŐs present skills and
those that are necessary for instruction.
Performance Goals: Examine each sub skill needed for the instructional
analysis diagram and write a clear and precise statement about what
behavior the learner exhibits under certain conditions and based on what
criterion that successful learning will be determined.
criterion-referenced test items: Using the criterion created for each
performance objective the designer will develop a set of questions that
will demonstrate whether or not the learner can perform the skill.
instruction strategy: Here creativity should run loose and an
instructional strategy should be created through the following five major
components: pre-instructional activities, information presentation,
student participation, testing, and follow-through. Important questions about how you
will implement your learning plan.
instructional materials: Develop or program the materials. Development should include a
student manual, the instruction, tests and an instructorŐs manual. Selection regarding multimedia
should be made based on learner and designerŐs skill and the media type
formative evaluation: Formative evaluation is used to assist the designer
with refining the instruction.
This should be completed in a three-step process. The first formative evaluation
attempt on the instruction and materials should be made with a small
number of students, the second try with a few more students and then third
time with a larger number of students.
instruction accordingly: Refinement of the instruction and/or procedures
should occur after each of the evaluative instructional steps with the
three different groups.
Instructional Systems Design is a process of creating
researched based, empirically testing instruction. The designer needs to allow
for deviation from the steps so that creativity can be expressed in an effort
to draw the learner into the material.
The analysis the author uses is very appropriate in terms summarizing
the entire process in reference to instruction.
ŇWhether or not the instruction is truly effective,
interesting, and engaging, depends on your ability to put on the scientistŐs
lab coat when analyzing the instructional goal, and putting on the artistŐs
smock when creating engaging and enjoyable ways to present the information to
the learner and provide them with meaningful practice and feedback.Ó