Introductions and Conclusions
1. Startling Statement
2. Reference to Literature
3. An Anecdote
4. Quotation from an Authority
6. A Look to the Future
7. Refer to a recent incident
8. Novel Idea or striking statement
9. Put pertinent and challenging questions to reader or listener
10. Give background information
11. Give historical information
12. Recount research
13. Name persons involved
14. State thesis
15. Begin with a broad, general statement of your topic and narrow it down to your thesis statement.
16. Start with an idea or situation that is the opposite of the one you will develop.
17. Explain the importance of your topic to the reader.
18. Use an incident or brief story.
1. A Summary of Key Ideas and final thought
2. A Quotation, Either Emotional or Factual
3. A Quotation from an Authority
4. An Anecdote or Question, or Both
5. A Challenge to the Audience
6. A Call to Action Now
7. A Historical Reference
8. Powerful restatement of thesis
9. Vivid illustration of the central idea
10. Include a thought-provoking question or short series of questions.
11. End with a prediction or recommendation.