Introductions and Conclusions

The Introduction

1.        Startling Statement

2.        Reference to Literature

3.        An Anecdote

4.        Quotation from an Authority

5.        Statistics

6.        A Look to the Future

7.        Refer to a recent incident

8.        Novel Idea or striking statement

9.        Put pertinent and challenging questions to reader or listener

10.     Give background information

11.     Give historical information

12.     Recount research

13.     Name persons involved

14.     State thesis

15.     Begin with a broad, general statement of your topic and narrow it down to your thesis statement.

16.     Start with an idea or situation that is the opposite of the one you will develop.

17.     Explain the importance of your topic to the reader.

18.     Use an incident or brief story.



The Conclusion

1.       A Summary of Key Ideas and final thought

2.       A Quotation, Either Emotional or Factual

3.       A Quotation from an Authority

4.       An Anecdote or Question, or Both

5.       A Challenge to the Audience

6.       A Call to Action Now

7.       A Historical Reference

8.       Powerful restatement of thesis

9.       Vivid illustration of the central idea

10.   Include a thought-provoking question or short series of questions.

11.   End with a prediction or recommendation.