APA Citation Style

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition


In Text Citation - Parenthetical Citation

The APA system of citing sources indicates the author's last name and the date, in parentheses, within the text of your paper.


A. A typical citation of an entire work consists of the author's name and the year of publication.

Example: Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990).

Use the last name only in both first and subsequent citations, except when there is more than one author with the same last name. In that case, use the last name and the first initial.

B. If the author is named in the text, only the year is cited.

Example: According to Irene Taylor (1990), the personalities of Charlotte. . .

C. If both the name of the author and the date are used in the text, parenthetical reference is not necessary.

Example: In a 1989 article, Gould explains Darwin's most successful. . .

D. Specific citations of pages or chapters follow the year.

Example: Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social" (Taylor, 1988, p. 11).

E. When the reference is to a work by two authors, cite both names each time the reference appears.

Example: Sexual-selection theory often has been used to explore patters of various insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983) . . . Alcock and Thornhill (1983) also demonstrate. . .

F. When the reference is to a work by three to five authors, cite all the authors the first time the reference appears. In a subsequent reference, use the first author's last name followed by et al. (meaning "and others").

Example of a subsequent reference:

Patterns of byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas et al., 1997)

When the reference is to a work by six or more authors, use only the first author's name followed et al. in the first and all subsequent reference. The only exceptions to this rule are when some confusion might result because of similar names or the same author being cited. In that case, cite enough authors so that the distinction is clear.

G. When the reference is to a work by a corporate author, use the name of the organization as the author.

Example: Retired officers retain access to all of the university's educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54).

H. Personal letters, telephone calls, and other material that cannot be retrieved are not listed in References but are cited in the text.

Example: Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, April 17, 1989) confirmed that the ideas. . .

I. Parenthetical references may mention more than one work, particularly when ideas have been summarized after drawing from several sources. Multiple citations should be arranged as follows.


List two or more works by the same author in order of the date of publication: (Gould, 1987, 1989)

Differentiate works by the same author and with the same publication date by adding an identifying letter to each date: (Bloom, 1987a, 1987b)

List works by different authors in alphabetical order by last name, and use semicolons to separate the references:  (Gould, 1989; Smith, 1983; Tutwiler, 1989).







Works Cited Page

Journal or Magazine Article

(use for journals that start each issue with page one)

Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek:

     The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65.


Journal or Magazine Article

(use for journals where the page numbering continues from issue to issue)

Dubeck, L. (1990). Science fiction aids science teaching. Physics

     Teacher, 28, 316-318.


Newspaper Article

Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes

     explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los Angeles

     Times, p. A3.


Article from an Internet Database

(for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site)

Mershon, D. H. (1998, November-December). Star Trek on the brain:

     Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved

     July 29, 1999, from Expanded Academic ASAP database.



Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star Trek chronology: The history

     of the future. New York: Pocket Books.


Book Article or Chapter

James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according

     to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic

     (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood.


Encyclopedia Article

Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana

     (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.


ERIC Document

Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next

     Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting

     of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document

     Reproduction Service No. ED 364932)



(for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site)

Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved

     October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club

     Web site: http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/











MLA Citation Style

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition


In-Text Citation

 As Joseph Gibaldi suggests in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: 4th Edition, the key to in-text citation is to "clearly point to specific sources in the list of works cited" (184, author’s boldface).

Examples of the most basic kinds of in-text citation styles are given in the following list. For specific cases or other examples, consult the MLA Handbook.

Basic Format

The basic format for MLA in-text citation is as follows:

(Author’s Last Name_Page Number)

i.e. One author claims that "no one is concerned with this issue" (Jones 45).

If the author’s last name appears in the citation, then only a page number is required:

i.e. "Howard Jones argues that ‘no one is concerned with this issue’" (45).

Multiple Authors

Multiple authors are cited in a similar way, although both names are included, and joined by the word "and":

i.e. (Cortez and Jones 56)

For more than three authors, use the first author’s last name, followed by the abbreviation "et al.":

i.e. (Cortez et al. 378)

Different Authors With the Same Last Name

When citing different authors with the same last name, include enough information so as to be able to differentiate them:

i.e. (H. Jones 48); (R. Jones 36)

More Than One Work by the Same Author

If you are citing more than one work by the same author, a combination of several of these methods is needed. For instance, if you have used two sources by the author Howard Jones, a book called The Man with the Horns, and a magazine article called "The Destruction of the American Mind," you might use the following:

(Jones, Man 475); (Jones, "Destruction" 34)

Group Authors

When identifying corporate authors, use the same format, but substitute the group name:

i.e. (Modern Language Association 68)

                The MLA Handbook also recommends that long group names be placed in the text itself, so as to avoid unwieldy in-text citations:

i.e. "The Society for the Greater Advancement of the Common Good insists that ‘all people have a right to free health care’" (47).

No Author Available

If no author is available, use a short form of the title (the shortest form that will allow you to recognize the work properly). For instance, if you were working with an article called "Thirty Reasons to Spay Your Pet," you might use the following:

("Thirty Reasons" 26)

 If you were working with a book with no author called Belief in the Supernatural, you might use:

(Belief 567)

Source Within a Source

If you are citing a source that is found within another source, use the abbreviation "qtd. in." For instance if you want to cite musician Miles Davis as he appears in a Nat Hentoff article, you would use the following format:

(Davis, qtd. in Hentoff 34)


Works Cited Page


Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History

     of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993.


Journal Article

Wilcox, Rhonda V. "Shifting Roles and Synthetic Women in Star

     Trek: The Next Generation." Studies in Popular Culture 13.2 (1991):



Newspaper or Magazine Article

Di Rado, Alicia. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore Modern

     Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles Times 15 Mar.

     1995: A3.


Book Article or Chapter

James, Nancy E. "Two Sides of Paradise: The Eden Myth According to

     Kirk and Spock." Spectrum of the Fantastic. Ed. Donald Palumbo.

     Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988. 219-223.


Encyclopedia Article   (well known reference books)

Sturgeon, Theodore. "Science Fiction." The Encyclopedia Americana.

     International ed. 1995.


Encyclopedia Article   (less familiar reference books)

Horn, Maurice. "Flash Gordon." The World Encyclopedia of Comics.

     Ed. Maurice Horn. 2 vols. New York: Chelsea, 1976.


Gale Reference Book   (and other books featuring reprinted articles)

Shayon, Robert Lewis. "The Interplanetary Spock." Saturday Review

      17 June 1967: 46. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed.

     Sharon R. Gunton. Vol. 17. Detroit: Gale Research, 1981. 403.


ERIC Document

Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn. Sibling Communication in Star Trek: The Next

     Generation: Conflicts between Brothers. Miami: Speech

     Communication Assn., 1993. ERIC Document Reproduction Service




Lynch, Tim. "DSN Trials and Tribble-ations Review." Psi Phi: Bradley's

     Science Fiction Club. 1996. Bradley University. 8 Oct. 1997 <http://



Newspaper or Magazine Article on the Internet

Andreadis, Athena. "The Enterprise Finds Twin Earths Everywhere It

     Goes, But Future Colonizers of Distant Planets Won't Be So Lucky."

     Astronomy Jan. 1999: 64- . Academic Universe. Lexis-Nexis. B.

     Davis Schwartz Memorial Lib., Brookville, NY. 7 Feb. 1999 <http://



Literature Resource Center

Shayon, Robert Lewis. "The Interplanetary Spock." Saturday Review

      17 June 1967: 46. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed.

     Sharon R. Gunton. Vol. 17. Detroit: Gale Research, 1981. 403.

     Literature Resource Center. Gale Group. B. Davis Schwartz

     Memorial Lib., Brookville, NY. 16 Oct. 2001 <http://